Category Archives for humanities T

assignment based on a logical argumentation


the assignment is write a two-page assignment based on a logical argumentation steps.1. Identify the issue2. Present the premises3. Present an address counter argument4. Conclusion and summary5. References.
select issues from newspapers, Internet, personal life, school, or any other issue. The logical argument should be include. Clearly defined issue, present the premise that supports the conclusion. Present and respond to counter arguments from the other side of the issue. Make sure you include your logical argument and provide a summary. Be sure to clearly cite your resources, using the format quote you are using author, publication, year, page number.


Should Recreational Drugs Be Legalised?


Many arguments have been developed over the years regarding recreational drugs. Consumers use these drugs to attain a sense of pleasure and not for medicinal functions. Most of these drugs such as cocaine, heroine, cannabis and LSD are illegal. Many countries have agencies that work on controlling drug use. However, today the usage is very rampant. A lot of money is spent on the war against drugs in many societies (Maich, 2004).

Premise of the Argument

Legalising recreational drugs is a reasonable decision when it comes to protecting the society. If such laws are passed, it is a choice made by each individual to determine their actions. These laws need to be passed with clauses that support education on the effects of using recreational drugs. Legalising the drugs in a controlled, safe environment will result to good judgement on the part of every individual. Strict standards of distribution and buying like those of tobacco and alcohol will ensure people make personal decisions whether to use drugs or not (Cussen & Block, 2000, pp. 527-529).

Illegality of these drugs has resulted in pointless risks for many consumers. Many people use these drugs even though they are illegal and therefore, it would make sense to allow the drugs in a controlled environment. The quantity and doses of the drugs are measured through criminal activities resulting in deaths from overdosing. However, once legalised, drug doses can be monitored to ensure safety of consumers. The illegality of recreational drugs also encourages criminal activities in many countries. Terrorist groups get a leeway to fund illegal activities like gangs whilst once legalised, genuine organisations will be responsible for the business (Maich, 2004).

The economy has also suffered greatly because of illegality of these drugs. This is because there is a lot of money spent on drug prohibition for a large network that is growing rapidly. Drug lords have strong networks, corruption of law enforcers, and a wide crime rate connected to drug use. Research indicates that revoking laws legalising the drugs has increased drug intake by 350%. For instance, Bratain heroin consumers have shot up by forty folds and many cases of addiction have been reported (Cussen, & Block, 2000, pp. 528-530).

Inference that counter Drug legalisation

It is difficult to suggest that drug use is all right to any person. Recreational drugs pose adverse effects on the physical and mental health of consumers. This is especially so because these drugs may be taken in small quantities but in the end, might result to appalling effects on the body. If drug use is legalised, it will convey the message that drug use is not harmful or is less dangerous than it was previously assumed. This will lead to use of drugs by many more people posing the danger of addictions within societies. Thus, the idea of having a personal choice is overcome by the danger of health problems that may follow (Ricaurte & McCann, 2005, p. 218).

There is a great risk for consuming recreational drugs within the societal structures. This is because; recreational drugs do not offer the body any meaningful benefit that warrants legalising. They also have no benefit to the society in any direct way that will ensure that things remain orderly. Many drug takers are not able to function properly in workplaces consequently, reducing productivity in the society. The drugs are addictive, and many find it difficult to stop thus more money is spent in rehabilitation centres. The other major disadvantage is the fact that, once these drugs are legalised, it may open doors for more dangerous substances in the market (Steeves, 2011).

Conclusion and Summary

The above arguments show that the drug problem is very complex. It is clear that drug use is harmful, and a damage it poses overshadows all benefits. Drugs also lead to poor output in workplaces and this will greatly affect the economy. Personal choices in using drugs are always overshadowed by harmful consequences that result. People who use drugs affect not only the society, but also the immediate loved ones surrounding them. The conclusion is that drugs should not be legalised, rather countries should put strict measures to curb drug use.


Cussen, M., & Block, W. (2000). Legalize Drugs Now!. American Journal Of Economics & Sociology, 59(3), 525.

Maich, S. (2004). A Case for Marijuana Inc. Maclean’s, 117(47), 42.

Ricaurte, G. A., & McCann, U. D. (2005). Recognition and management of complications of new recreational drug use. Lancet, 365(9477), 2137-2145. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(05)66737-2.

Steeves, R. (2011). Recognising Drug abuse at Work. Occupational Health, 63(9), 27-30.

“Tiger can’t sleep” by S.J.Fore. Prior to performing interpretation


Course: Public Speaking


Please read “Tiger can’t sleep” by S.J.Fore. Prior to performing interpretation, you are to analyze “Tiger can’t sleep”. Then write a textual analyses. Here are some questions to answer in your analysis.

  1. Who is the main voice in the “Tiger can’t sleep”? To whom is the voice speaking? How did you choose the tone of the voice?
  2. What is going on here, exactly? What is the plot line of the “Tiger can’t sleep”? What is the author’s intended meaning of the “tiger can’t sleep”? How can you convey that meaning orally or physically?
  3. What sorts of people live in “Tiger can’t sleep”? What are their personalities saying? What autistic gestures can you use to identify and separate these characters?
  4. What does the environment say about “Tiger can’t sleep”? How are you conveying the environment in your presentation?
  5. Are there characters that are never seen or heard from? If not, why not? Where is your focus for these characters?


1-2 pages. Every word must be spelt properly, all grammar and punctuation must be correct. Please make sure to check and double-check for any grammatical or spelling errors. Besides, my computer can’t open the DOC files. Please send me the solution with PDF file. Thank you.


Tiger Can’t Sleep is a fun book for children infused with lots of fun and opportunities to practice voice modulation (“Tiger Can’t Sleep”, n.d.). The central protagonists in this piece are a boy and a tiger. But the main voice in Tiger Can’t Sleep, in my opinion, is the little boy though some few can be heard from the tiger. The conversation between the little boy and the tiger constitutes the basic theme of the story and the majority of the story is composed of the dialogue of the little boy conveyed towards the tiger. It is noteworthy that on some occasion the little boy is talking to himself also.

The story is about a little boy who is willing to go to sleep but can’t do so as there is a tiger in his closet that is actually making different types of noises and keeping on talking. Such noises and are hindering the process of sleep and the little boy is unable to fall asleep. The noises are almost intolerable for the little boy and he yells at the tiger in order to prevent the latter in making further noises. But interestingly enough the different types of sounds that are described in this piece generate a rhythm that has essentially contributed to the development of the story. Moreover, there is a repetition in the behavior of the tiger. Each time the little boy yells at the tiger and tries to prevent the tiger to make noise, the tiger apologizes, “Oops! Tiger is sorry…won’t make another sound” (Fore, 2006).

Just like the behavior of the tiger the plot of the story is also based on repetition. The conversation between the boy and the tiger remains thematically same and this aspect lies in the hardcore of the story. But though this theme remains unchanged stagnancy has been avoided by Fore through the implementation of myriads of sounds which are changing according to the story’s progress. Sometimes we hear “Ker-thump! Ker-thump! Ker-thump! Ouch! (Fore, 2006) and sometimes it changes to “Boo-hoo, Boo-hoo, Boo-hoo… (Fore, 2006). And these changing sounds render dynamism to the story and make the story thoroughly enjoyable for children and adults alike.

The primary endeavor behind this story is to convey the fact that the imagination of a child can be expansive and immense. And it is the virtue of childhood which makes the little boy imagines a world of his own where mystery, fun, and joy are amalgamated. Moreover, the world depicted within the story is composed of mainly two individuals, the little boy and the tiger. The little boy’s bedroom has been turned into a magical world where the conversation between a boy and a tiger has been transformed into a conversation taking place between two living beings who cannot be separated according to their species and this is because there is no need of doing so as both the boy and the tiger understand each other’s language. The homely environment depicted in the story is also infused with a fairytale-like ambience. And as stated earlier there are two central characters within the story, the boy and the tiger. So, in my opinion, there are no other major characters present in the story from whom we can hear something. But in a subtle manner the character of the boy’s mother has been projected in the story through the mockeries of the little boy. And for me the omission of such representation would not have affected the story as the tone of the story has already been set by the little boy and the tiger if the story would have been continued only involving these two characters (without involving the mother’s character) then also the structure would have remained appropriate.

(622 words)



Fore, S. J. (2006). Tiger Can’t Sleep. Viking Children’s Books.

Tiger Can’t Sleep. (n.d.). Library In a Box. Retrieved September 19, 2012, from

forms of pluralism in religious discourse



several seminal theories

Several seminal theories in religious studies have helped to stimulate academic reflection on

the origins and the nature of religion. Among these theories mentioned in your textbook, are

Edward B. Tyler’s animism, Emile Durkheim’s totemism, Paul Tillich’s ultimate concern,

Rudolf Otto’s idea of the holy (numinous), and Mircea Eliade’s view of the sacred. Each of

these theories (and many others) have contributed to the development of the field of religious

studies by revealing highly different ways to approach and define the topic-matter. Whereas

Tyler and Durkheim (an anthropologist and a sociologist respectively) viewed religion as

‘nothing more than a human [cultural or] social construct’ (p. 23), based on notions of

cultural evolution or the apotheosis of social ideals, scholars such as Tillich and Otto saw

something ultimately meaningful or mysteriously powerful in humankind’s religious search.

Each of their theories reflect their own biases about religion, and remind us that religion can

mean many things to different people. A single definition, therefore, may not be inherently

privileged or better than another. (see pp. 19–23)

missionary religions

Missionary religions have had an ambivalent impact on human societies for several reasons.

On the one hand, their usually altruistic motivations to help others have often contributed to

increased social welfare programs to aid the poor and to care for the sick/orphans (albeit

social tensions often accompanied such activities). Secondly, the adherents of missionary

religions often produced pioneering linguistic ethnographic, and historical studies of

indigenous religions enriching the understanding of them.

On the other hand, missionary religions have been tied to cultural imperialism, hostility

towards competing religions, and military aggression. Their adherents have sometimes been

insensitive to the religious beliefs and practices of outsiders generating considerable

resentment and even violent conflict. As a result, it is rather paradoxical to observe that the

usually altruistic impulse for spreading religion has given birth to remarkable kindness,

compassion, and generosity, yet also produced religious chauvinism and colonial

imperialism. Thus, your textbook suggests that the ‘missionary record has been mixed at

best, with some very disturbing undertones’. (see pp. 8–11)

pluralism and secularism

careful consideration of the nature, definition, and contemporary context of religion,

the authors make an important distinction between the terms pluralismand secularism.

They define pluralism as ‘the granting of equal support, acceptance, or decision making roles

to more than one religious group’ (p. 12). As such, pluralism is a conscious attitude toward

the issue of religious diversity, which embraces a spirit of openness and acceptance towards

religious heterogeneity, seeing such diversity as inherently positive; in contrast, secularism in

the Western context, is defined as ‘the exclusion in principle of all religious groups,

institutions, and identities from public support and participation in public decision making’

(p. 12). Secularism asserts that society is better off curtailing the roles of religion to a limited

sphere without government support (or even suppressing religion altogether). It sees the

separation of church and state to be inherently positive and even very wise. (It should be

noted that in the context of India, the term ‘secularism’ has a different, unique meaning,

which refers to guaranteed constitutional protections for India’s religious groups, where the

state plays an active role in their preservation.)

One can also differentiate other important forms of pluralism in religious discourse such

as ‘epistemological pluralism’ and ‘theological pluralism’. In theological language, ‘religious pluralism’ has a specific meaning in relation to other faiths, which posits that the world’s

religious are all efficacious paths to salvation/liberation. This theory, championed by the

philosopher John Hick and many others, remains highly influential today, although it is often

criticized. (see pp. 11–14)


Several seminal theories

There are myriads of seminal theories and these theories have rendered different interpretations regarding the nature, scope, evolution, etc of religion. But among those there are certain theories which can help an individual to a great extent in analyzing and understanding the origins and natures of different religions of the world. Among such theories is Edward B. Tyler’s theory of animism, Emile Durkheim’s theory of totemism, Paul Tillich’s theory of ultimate concern, Rudolf Otto’s theory of idea of the holy (numinous), and Mircea Eliade’s theory of view of the sacred. Just like the viewpoints of scholars vary from one another their theories too vary and through such various theories one can observer the different ways of approach towards revealing the real nature of religions. For an example, Tyler and Durkheim opined religion to be a human or social construct whereas, Tillich and Otto found out an essence of mystery as well as meaningfulness in the quest for unearthing the real nature of religions. But whatever may be the approaches, all of them are composed of the own biasness of the theorists’ about the concept of religion. And that is the reason why it is hard to give a proper definition of religion as this word itself denotes different meanings to different individuals.

Missionary religions

Missionary religions have a two-faced impact on the societies of different countries across the globe. On one hand the missionary religions’ urge to spread their respective religious philosophy among the masses did pave the way for a new kind of socio-cultural and religious interaction leading to myriads of welfare and philanthropic programs for the betterment of the concerned societies, but on the other hand the approach of these missionary religions to almost invade a particular society and transform its members into followers of a particular religious belief, without heeding to the existing religious beliefs, cultures, and customs, has often gave rise to hostilities, conflicts, chaos, and confusion. In many occasions it has been seen that though the adherents of some missionary religions have contributed a lot to the enrichment of the cultures of the indigenous people of different countries, it has also been observed that the insensitiveness of such adherents towards the philosophies of other religions has given rise to ambiguities, violence, and dilemma. So the history of missionary religions can be considered as an amalgamation of both the good and the evil.

Pluralism and Secularism

There is a demarcation between the terms pluralism and secularism in the context of religion. Pluralism is a term that denotes equality, acceptance, and particular mode of decision making adopted by particular religious groups. Besides, pluralism is a concept which embraces within itself the approach of accepting the diversity and heterogeneity that prevails in the realm of different religious beliefs. Secularism, on the other hand, denotes the policy of excluding the principles and philosophies of different religious groups from the aspects of public decision making processes and administrative policies. Moreover, the concept of secularism firmly supports the principle that religious principles should be limited to some extent and religious should not influence governing policies of particular governments of the world. For an example, the Constitution of India has incorporated within its sphere the principle of secularism thereby, rendering protection to the different religious groups residing within the country. And it has assured such protection by declaring that the government is free from any biases towards any particular religion. But though pluralism is not composed of any such exclusive policies it can surely be divided into categories like epistemological pluralism and theological pluralism and in the context of theological language religious pluralism generates the idea that all the philosophies of all the religions of the world actually lead human beings in the path of attainment of salvation or liberation. And such a theory has been upheld by philosophers like John Hick and this theory has still remained an influential but widely criticized one.

(657 words)

the two cosmogonies (origin of the world) in conflict with each other


Problematizing the Familiar

(Book of Genesis 1-3)


  1. Are the two cosmogonies (origin of the world) in conflict with each other? Why? What are the questionable factors (Genesis 1: 1-31; 2: 1-3, and 2: 4-14) ?
  2. Are the two accounts of the creation of man and woman (Gen. 1: 26-28, and Gen. 2: 7 & 15-24) in conflict with each other? Why? What is the “gender relationship” implied in the description like that “God created Eve out of rib of Adam”? What is your take-on when God is portrayed as the God who did not know ahead of time that “man shouldn’t be alone,” and “there is no suitable partner for Adam in the animal Kingdom”?
  3. What was the warning of God regarding the fruit of the “Tree of knowledge” (Gen. 2:17 & 3:3)? Did Adam and Eve really die right after eating that fruit (Gen. 3: 10-11; 3: 22; 5: 3-4)?
  4. What kind of instant changes occurred to Adam and Eve right after they ate the fruit? Are the capacities of being able to “know the good from evil” and “acknowledge one’s own physical condition (nakedness) really negative development of human nature (by-product of original sin)? Why?
  5. What were the punishments of Adam and Eve? Were the severity and fairness of God’s punishments problematic? Why? Who, Adam or Eve should take more blame for the fall (Gen. 3:16-17)? Why? What is the implication of gender relationship according to God’s statement that “he [Adam] should rule over you [Eve],”? Do you agree or disagree to it?
  6. What was God(s)’s anxiety over the possibility that Adam and Eve may reach their hands to the fruit of “Tree of Life” (Gen 3: 22-23)? What are the characteristics of God portrayed in here?
  7. What is the nature of the relationship between God, and Adam & Eve, suggested in this narrative i.e. Inter-dependent, Authoritative and Hierarchical, Parental-Loving, or Others? Why?


Problem Statement

The research problem is to determine if the organizational transitions in the McDonald’s Corporation have an effect on the employee commitment, and the type of impact these changes have. The following questions are aimed to be addressed during the course of the research:

1- What is the meaning of organizational transition and why it is an essential aspect in the functioning of a company?

2- What are the various effects that organizational transition has on the personnel of a company?

3- What is meant by employee commitment, how can it be assessed, and why is it important for the company?

4- How are organizational transition in the company and levels of employee commitment inter-related?

5- What has been the impact of organizational transition on employee commitment in McDonald’s?


McDonald’s, which is one of the largest fast food chains in the world, wants to retain its competitive edge by constantly updating its practices and policies to make its employees the best and the most committed.

There are thousands of employees operating from various parts of the country in the McDonald’s Corporation. In today’s fast moving environment, changes set in at such a great speed, that many companies are not able to withstand the pressures of the external environment. It is important for the company to take concrete steps to ensure that its employees stay satisfied and committed despite all external and internal influences.

The current study utilized the principles and benefits of descriptive quantitative research methodology. This form of business research method was designed to help the researcher gain more information about the control management concept and its relation to McDonald’s employee attitudes toward control management and its meaning. Descriptive quantitative study can be used to create new hypotheses and assumptions, identify and evaluate the preferred control management systems at McDonalds, or even to identify what different employees would be willing to do in one and the same situation. However, the current study used quantitative method to answer the three following questions:

(a) Which are the factors affecting control management practices at McDonalds;

(b) Which is the impact of control management on employee performance at McDonalds; and

(c) Which are the control management methods which could improve employee performance at McDonalds?


To some extent, the current study also involved the benefits of correlation quantitative methodology, which is used to establish and describe a relationship between two or more variables. This type of research is applicable and used in conditions, where manipulation of independent variables is impossible or does not occur. The current study did not seek to manipulate independent variables but aimed to explore the links and relationships between concepts per se. As a result, the principles of co relational research could add value to the discussed research methodology and could enhance the reliability and validity of the research results.












  1. Neuman, W. (2003) Social Research Methods: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches 5th ed, Boston, Allyn and Bacon.


  1. Yin, R.K., 2003. Case Study Research: Design and Method. 3rd London, Sage.
  2. Zikmund, W.G., 2003. Business Research Methods. 6th Fort Worth, TX, Dryden Press.
  3. Wass, V. and Wells, P., 1994. Research methods in action: an introduction, in Wass, V.J. and Wells, P.E.(eds), Principles and Practice in BUSINESS and Management Research, Aldershot, Dartmouth, pp 1-34.
  4. Saunders, M., Lewis P. and Thornhill, A., 2007. Research Methods for Business Students. 4th London, Prentice Hall.
  5. Stewart, S.W. & Kamins, M.A., 1993. Secondary Research: Information Sources and Methods. 2nd Newbury Park, CA, Saga.





life story in relation to theories of lifespan development.


  1. please check coherence, grammer error.
  2. please check some strange sentence, you can add or edit appropriate sentences.
  3. i have to make socio-culture development related my lifespan and sum up the conclusion.
[Task] due date is 17/9 8p.m , word count is between 1800 and 2200.

Critically analyse a life story in relation to theories of lifespan development.

-the domains of development (physical, cognitive, emotional, socio-cutural and/ or moral)

-the biological and environmental influences on development, including examples that demonstrate understanding of the nature and nurture argument.


Human development can be defined as a process of progressive changes and stabilities of people that happens from a birth of a baby till death (Berk, 2009). The changes are divided into five different domains; physical, cognitive, social, emotional, and moral (Mpofu, 2010). Also, the changes are happening all the time in people’s lives and affect the others as people grow through their life (Sigelman& Rider, 2006). In the IDN, I will explain the five domains of development and the biological and environmental influences on the development throughout my lifespan by using a number of theories including that of nature nurture.

My parents had me when they were 30 years old and I was the first girl offspring in the entire family. My uncles loved me very much and they came back to home early to see me. When I was born, my grandmother was much surprised because I looked thoroughly like my father. Since my parents are relatively tall and well-built, my weight and height were more than other babies. Physical development is the growth of body, brain and genes inherited from parents. It relates to changes in body size, compositions, looks, and abilities of body organizations (Berk, 2009; Rice, 2001).Surprisingly, on the back of my father’s right hand, there is a blue mole and I also have the same sized and coloured mole on the same side of my right hand (genetic and biological influence). In accordance with my paternal grandmother, my appearance and size of body totally took after my father’s side.Those can be fully explained by the dynamic system theory of influence of motor development which indicates the capability of motor skill (Berk, 2009). Whenever my father had me in his arms, other people said that I looked exactly like my father. A few months later, I started standing up, crawling and speaking more rapidly than other babies of the same age.

Jean Piaget, one of the powerful theorists focusing on children’s cognitive development, indicated that children acquire constantly through experiences. He used a systematic model to describe and define individual development according to the basic cognitive development in four typical categories; sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, and formal operational (Berk, 2009). During infancy, I started scanning objects and grabbing them by myself with advanced motor and perceptual skills. Also I liked to go and be with my mum and I could distinguish people, places and objects and also was able to feel the fear whenever I was with strangers, and not with my parents. At this stage, babies can grow trust and mistrust. They are much closer to caregivers who are emotionally related. It can be explained through theories given by Berk in 2009 and Rice in 2001 on knowing other people through changes in emotional communication, personality, friendships and intimate relationships. I began playing with toys alone by grabbing and mouthing and fitting certain shapes of block to holes that matched the shapes. In addition, while I was 8 months old, I finally spoke words such as “mama” and “papa” and sometimes, I solved problems like getting a toy by standing on a lower chair. According to my mother, I became stubborn from this stage, and this made her so stressful. It can be explained through the analysis of the sensorimotor stage (0-2 years) of the cognitive development. Cognitive development is connected with alteration of intellectual stages of thinking such as language, problem solving, reasoning, imagination, memory and logical thinking. It accounts for the different perspective about the same theory and includes perceiving, learning, remembering and thinking. (Berk, 2007; Rice, 2001). When I was 4 years old, my mother was pregnant and I got a pretty little sister. My father and mother only focused on the baby and I was not given much importance. Sometime I bothered the baby or cried out and yelled out intentionally to receive a lot of attention and affection from them.At that time, I think that my emotion development was not fully in progress. When I was around 5 or 6 years, I used to play mothers and fathers with my younger sister and brother, which was my sole comfort. From the age of 6 I started going to kindergarten at least twice a week. However, I could easily draw simple things like an apple and wrote my name and my parent’s names. This is an example of preoperational stage (2-6 years) of the cognitive development and at this stage children develop presenting something with some words and images that they know (Berk, 2009). At the age of 6 I did learn playing piano and drawing. And the age of 7, with the aid of my mother, and also, I could symbolise some objects with some words that I liked. A year later, I went to primary school. I could now develop the category of numbers and symbols while playing card games with my friends. At this stage, children can perform logical thinking and they can classify objects into groups with mathematical transformations (Berk, 2009). This stage is referred to as concrete operational stage (7-11 years). When I was 7 years old, I found a cell phone on a street. In my mind, I really wanted to have the one because I did not have any cell phone. I did not tell anyone about the phone and I had a mental and inner conflict. Finally, I told my grandmother and we went to a police station to hand it over. When I told her about it, I was scolded by her but I learnt from the incident that I should not take what does not belong to me and till now I am following the principle of not claiming what is not mine. Moral development includes judgment that requires behaviours and emotions to decide about the social standards of right and wrong that happens in the realm of daily life. Across the lifespan, moral development is initiated and aided by parents, siblings and teachers and influenced by changes in social, cognitive, emotional and behavioural aspects (Mpofu, 2010). From the primary school to middle school, I was able to understand the academic classes easily without any visual aid or experimental tasks in history and chemistry classes. At the Formal operational stage (over 12 years) children think logically about abstractions, which contain hypothetical concepts, such as thinking about possibilities of logical outcomes. Moreover, at this stage individuals become able to have reflections on their own thoughts and potentiality of moral reasoning (Berk, 2009).

Biological (Genetic)/Nature Influences

Genetic and biological factors are significant contributors to individual development along with a variety of natural features. There are no inherited diseases like cancers and diabetes in my family history. In terms of my paternal family members, they are blunt but calm and warm-hearted. Average height is around 188 cm and I am relatively taller than the girls of my age residing within the same country where I belong. On the other hand, as of my maternal side, they are little bit overweighed but social and have calm personality. I definitely believe that I look similar to my father, especially in respect of appearance and characteristic because both of us are timid and indecisive persons. Surprisingly, on the back of my father’s right hand, there is a blue mole and I also have the same sized and coloured mole on the same side of my right hand. This can be totally explained as some genetic influences on the skin.

My father has double eyelids, my mother has single eyelids, and thus I have single eyelids, which can be explained by the theory of dominant-recessive inheritance. Dominant characteristic refers to the allele effects, and recessive means that the allele does not affect. Recessive characteristic is only seen when both parents give the recessive allele (Berk, 2009). For an example that my mother rendered the dominant allele to me, hence I got the dominant feature (single eyelids) from her.

Environment/Nurture Influences

Environmental factors are one of the contributors to human developments. UrieBronfenbrenner’s ecological theory conveys that people are close to social context that has influences on children’s developments. He paid attention to interaction with five different kinds of contexts that relate to the individual children, based on the social context of human development. In this category, it has been defined from the smallest model to the biggest model; individual person, microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem and macrosystem (Drewery&Bird, 2004; Berk 2009).

Figure 1.5 (Berk, 2009, p20)



The microsystem refers to interaction with intimate people or close environment such as family members and classmates (Drewery& Bird, 2004). For instance, When I was a little child, I spent most of my time with my grandparents, especially with my grandmother until I was a high school student. My personality and values have been significantly affected by her. When she was angry with something, she tried to relieve the stress by reading a book or cooking. And being seriously influenced by her, I get rid of a considerable amount of stress by cooking. I think that positive thinking is the most important thing in my life, and this value has been passed from my grandparents.


The mesosystem refers to a system that is linked to microsystem and the relationship between home and school which plays a pivotal role in the category (Berk, 2009). For instance, at primary school and middle school, I could meet diverse people and learn myriads of differences between people. In addition, I learnt to respect my classmates and teachers. I firmly believe that it was a good time for me to broaden my perspectives.


Berk indicated (“Exploring lifespan development”, 2009) that the exosystem refers to people and larger social groups such as community, mass media, neighbours and welfare services. For an example, when I was around 14, the impact of mass media was dominant in my country, especially of singers and movie stars. I followed what super stars do and was usually hanging out with community members who were fans of particular superstars. My dream was to be a wife of a particular super star. At that moment, I was crazy about the super star and my studies were kept aside.


According to Drewery& Bird (“Human development in Aotearoa: A journey through life”,2000) and Berk (“Exploring lifespan development”, 2009) the macrosystem refers to large culture such as language, values, customs and law. As everybody knows, most Asian countries’ cultures are based upon Confucianism, including my country, South Korea. Some of the Confucian traditions continue to this day in my country. When I was in my adolescence, I learnt the Confucian ideas from my great grandparents. And as per the tradition, I was not allowed to wear short skirt and sleeveless shirts and also it was prohibited by law. However, as time passed and with the adoption western culture, I was let free to wear them without asking for anyone’s permission.

Please make some argument between nature and nurture.


There are myriads of stages through which the motor and cognitive developments within an individual take place. There are different theories of cognitive development but the most significant one is of Piaget’s. Moreover, the process of development is also influenced by several genetic factors which are independent of external factors or influences. But there are several other external factors that can be considered as significant contributors to the type and process of individual development. Furthermore, apart from some common influences including the influence of proper upbringing, the influence of the natural and artificial environment on the development process of an individual should be considered as an important factor.





Berk, L. E. (2009).Exploring lifespan development. (7th ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.

Drewery, W., & Bird, L. (2000).Human development in Aotearoa: A journey through life.

(2nd ed.). Auckland, New Zealand: McGraw Hill.

Mcilveen, R., & Gross, R. (1999).Aspects of psychology: Adolescence, adulthood and old

age. London, England: Hodder& Stoughton.

Mpofu, C (2010). Psychology and lifespan development: an introductory text for health

professionals. North Shore, New Zealand: Pearson Custom.

Rice, F. P. (2001). Human development: A life-span approach. Upper Saddle River, NJ:

Prentice Hall.

Sigelman, C. K., & Rider, E. A. (2006).Life-span human development. (5th ed.). Belmont,

CA: Vicki Knight.

Social/emotional development.(2000). Scholastic Early Childhood Today,15(1), 61-61.

Retrieved from


















to determine what parts of speech these are:


I have problems with this. I am supposed to determine what parts of speech these are: We’re looking for verbs, objects and predate words. The choices are verb phrase, linking verb , helping verb, predicate noun, predicate adjective, direct object and indirect object.
The sentences are as follows:
1. Calvin was wandering down the street when it happened.
2. A car hit a truck that was parked at the curb.
3.The car looked old and battered.
4.Two men left the car and dashed away.
5.Calvin had never seen anything like it.
6.He was upset by what he’d observed.
7.Calvin told a police officer the whole story.
8.”That event was a scene in a movie, ” she said.

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  1. Calvin was wandering ( verb phrase—original verb–wander) down the street when it happened (verb phrase).
  2. A car hit (verb phrase) a truck (direct object) that was parked (verb phrase) at the curb.

3.The car looked (linking verb) old and battered (predicate adjective).

4.Two men left the car (direct object) and dashed away. (left and dashed—verb phrase)

5.Calvin had (helping verb) never (adverb) seen (the entire underlined part is a verb phrase) anything (direct object) like it.

6.He was upset (verb phrase) by what he’d observed.

7.Calvin told a police (indirect object) officer the whole story (direct object) .

8.”That event was (linking verb) a scene(predicate adjective) in a movie, ” she said.

Buddhist Economics By E. F. Schumacher “Right Livelihood


World Religions


Essay Question: “Buddhist Economics”

  1. One of the requirements of the “Noble Eightfold Path” is “Right Livelihood.” Schumacher suggests that the understanding of the meaning of work, therefore, would differ between the “modern perspective” and the “Buddhist perspective.” Compare the two perspectives and then discuss how the American workplace might be different if it followed the “Buddhist perspective.”


  1. Schumacher sees simplicity as a keynote of Buddhist economics. What’s the connection between simplicity and nonviolence according to this article? How does this relate to Jain ethical principles?


  1. According to Schumacher, what distinguishes Buddhist economics from modern economics in its approach to material wealth? To natural resources? With which approach are you more sympathetic and why?


Both Buddhist economics and the modern economics have different perspectives regarding work. According to Schumacher the modern economics, and specifically the Western economics tends to measure the standard of living of a person according to the person’s degree of consumption. And he has also observed that in the realm of the modern economics (specifically Western economics) workers are considered as costs by the employers and hence, the latter is always willing to reduce the number of the former as much as possible to gain economic advantage. Moreover, in relation to this point of view employers are more inclined towards adopting the process of automation. Based on this approach of the employers the employees also tend to devote less and earn more from their work. And if these approaches continue then the ideal form which will emerge will be employee opting for output without employees and employees opting for income without employment. Moreover, this is a dilemmatic concept and this is going to ruin the economy. Besides, in this context Schumacher has brought forward the principle of Buddhist economics in respect of work. From the point of the view of the Buddhist economics people and their ability to work is more important than the finished goods and consumption. It is the creative activity and not the production which is more important in the Buddhist economics. And if the American workplaces would have followed this principles of the Buddhist economics then the scenario would have been different as employees would have been given much more emphasize than to the product of their work and this would have render job satisfaction to the employees which in turn would have minimized their stresses and anxieties. And this reduction in undue stress would have provided the American employees with a better physical and mental health and would have prevented them to surrender to violence means (which are often now come before us as incidents of workplace violence and violence in personal life).

(327 words)


  1. Schumacher sees simplicity as a keynote of Buddhist economics. What’s the connection between simplicity and nonviolence according to this article? How does this relate to Jain ethical principles?

Schumacher did observe a close relation between simplicity and non-violence. Through his devoted study about the Buddhist economy he has found that simplicity is the keynote of the Buddhist economics. The principal aim of the Buddhist economic, unlike the materialist economics is not in goods but in liberation. But though this is a truth, it is also a truth that Buddhism follows a middle path and hence the Buddhist economics never finds anything wrong with wealth but it is the attachment towards wealth which is unwanted in respect of Buddhism. Moreover, this simple philosophy of Buddhism and Buddhist economics is related to non-violence. If the pattern of the economy can be formulated in such a way that low rate of consumption can generate a high rate of satisfaction then there are ample chances that people will learn to live with limited resources and consumption and this adaptation will eventually refrain them to commit any violence against each other for extracting more than what is actually needed. Furthermore, the habit of modest consumption will gradually make people more satisfied and a satisfied human being is seldom violent. And in these regards some similarities can be found between Buddhism and Jainism. In terms of simplicity both these religions aims at liberation though good conduct and good deeds encompassing right perception, right knowledge and right conduct (“Buddhism & Jainism”, n.d.). Besides, just like Buddhism, Jainism too believes that non-violence should always be followed in action, in speech, and in the thought process (Buddhism & Jainism”, n.d.).

(253 words)



  1. According to Schumacher, what distinguishes Buddhist economics from modern economics in its approach to material wealth? To natural resources? With which approach are you more sympathetic and why?

Schumacher has profoundly studied the economic philosophy of Buddhist nations and the economic principle of Buddhism. And through such avid study and observation he has provided some vital differences between the approaches of Buddhist economics and modern economics towards material wealth, natural resources etc. Through his discussions in “The Buddhist Economics” Schumacher has conveyed that unlike the modern economics’ approach towards material wealth the Buddhist economics’ approach towards material wealth is based on the philosophy that there should be sufficiency and not surplus. According to the principle of the Buddhist economics economic progress should be attained to gain sufficiency but if the progress is meant to gain more than what is sufficient the process will eventually lead to evil that will ultimately ruin the economy. Moreover, in terms of natural resources too, the principle of the Buddhist economy varies from that of the modern one. Unlike the modern economics’ approach towards natural resources the Buddhist economics aims at distinguishing between renewable and non-renewable resources. And it is the viewpoint of the Buddhist economics that a civilization can only sustain in a progressive manner if it is built upon renewable resources rather than non-renewable sources. And going through all such principles of the Buddhist economics I do agree to it thoroughly and I think it is time now to embrace the approaches of the Buddhist economy only to help the modern economy survive. If still now modern economy fails to realize the need of renewable resources and if it fails to check the tendency of overconsumption then in the recent future its existence will be in jeopardy.

(266 words)




Buddhism & Jainism. (n.d.). Buddhist-Tourism. Retrieved September 23, 2012, from



What does Feuerbach mean by “God”


What does Feuerbach mean by “God” write 5 paragraphs on this article, no research just the article


In The Essence of Christianity Feuerbach did convey some significant opinions which ultimately rendered havoc impact on the realm of theology and specifically on the conventional Christian concept of God. The central thesis of Feuerbach’s epical work The Essence of Christianity is that the notion of the divine or God is actually nothing more than human projection. Feuerbach opined that the object of religion is a selected object and the concept of the Supreme Being is the primarily selected object of religion. God is the concept generated by man and there are some basic differences between the actuality of God and the Christian theory of God.

Man’s separation and projection of his own nature gives rise to the idea of God according to Feuerbach. It is the inclination of human beings to turn the subjective nature into an objective one rendering a sense of independence and extra-existential being that ultimately paved the way for the emergence of the conventional and divine concept of God. Moreover, in Feuerbach’s opinion the objectification of God did come into existence due to the man’s longing for comfort, security, and an appropriate meaning of leading life. Every human being remembers God when they are in need of something, and this, according to Feuerbach, is a pointer to the fact that God actually springs out of the feeling of a certain want which grows within the human mind. It is the feeling of loneliness, feeling of a void, and the feeling of insecurity that gave birth to the concept of the Supreme God who will save individuals from all of their sufferings. Hence, Feuerbach has contested the idea of a Supreme God who is obviously an imagination of human mind.

Feuerbach’s theory suggests that it is the turmoil suffered by human beings in coping with the harsh realities of the physical world which has actually given rise to the concept of a Divine Superpower, the God. The emotional shocks which human beings often receive in this world initiate a tendency within the human mind to seek shelter under the umbrella of a different psychological world where there is a Supreme God to bless every one with peace, serenity, happiness, and justice. It is this hope of finding peace that makes human beings inclined toward imagining a God who is all pervasive and divine. According to Feuerbach the pains, the frustrations, the anxieties, the injustices, the hopelessness of human life and the fear of the lurking death actually enforced human beings to find a source that can offer them perfect happiness and immense hope and it is this urge of finding such a source which ultimately gave rise to the concept of a God who will provide human beings with all that they need in another world after death. And it is from this angle that Feuerbach comments that this God is nothing but an illusion.

For Feuerbach the concept of God is an interesting and complex one as through this notion human beings project their own being into objectivity and then turn themselves into objects to the projected image of themselves (i.e. God) and thereby transforms themselves into a subject of worship. And this complex psychology is the only truth behind the existence of God. Moreover, according to Feuerbach individuals who are religious by nature tend to see the positive elements of their nature within an imaginative form that can extend their own abilities and compose as perfect being. And this tendency of this kind of human beings ultimately transforms their imagination into a supernatural and omnipotent power called God.

In conclusion, for Feuerbach the concept of God is actually a view of human beings through which they try to give shape to their own desires in the form of an infinite, all pervasive and perfect God. God is in reality the imagination of human mind, an illusionary concept through which human beings strive to attribute their own perfected qualities to an imaginary powerful being that can provide human beings with all those things that they long for.

(672 words)


What is Scientifically Based Research


What is Scientifically Based Research.pdf(452.562 Kb)
In the education field there are piles of “research-based” practices, products, materials, books and articles on”research-based understandings” that flood our professional mailboxes. It’s hard to make heads or tails of what that all means and which ones to embrace for the right reasons. Please review Chapter 1 of the Mertler text and read the embedded link,What is Scientifically Based Research? A Guide for Educators, Using Research and Reason. (Baxter & Reddy, 2006) It’s a good overview of considerations for educators in the consumption and application of educational research.


For additional things to think about, I have attached a brief article on the potential intended biases that lie within educational research.
After you’ve read, write about your thoughts from your own lens in the capacity in which you work. In what ways have you been asked to implement a new practice, adopt a new policy or think differently. What questions might you have asked now that you have a sense of quality indicators of educational research? What are the challenges of direct translation of educational research?
Baxter, S. & Reddy, D. (2006). What is Scientifically Based Research: A Guide for Teachers, Using Research and Reason in Education. National Institute for Literacy, Jessup, MD.
Ferraro, D.J. (2005). Does Research Equal Value Neutral?, (2) 425-432, Phi Delta Kappan.


Thinking about my company, I would highlight upon workers program that enables workers to learn and benefit from the organization’s educational research. The workers program provided today should be more work oriented rather than theoretical and more of competence based inducing practical thinking among the students. This helps organizations create workers for the futures. The organizations providing vocational training should also keep this in mind while designing there course. The induction of such adult programs will have benefits like, maintenance of the levels of innovation in terms of preparing future workforce, better placing the workers towards responding to external pressures, better suited to customer oriented environment, improving quality and output of future employees and increasing the pace of changing in the company.

The skills of a worker, the attitude of a manager, an accountant’s style of dressing, these are all learned behaviors. By applying the processes and principles associated with learning, organizations can mould the behavior of employees to enhance their performance. Organizations constantly endeavor to make their employees synchronize their behavior to enable them to keep pace with their subordinates, peers and superiors. Organizations can put to use learning theories to train the employees and polish their skills. Learning theories help managers construe people’s acquisition of certain behaviors and skills. In the organizational context, learning theories have many implications.


Time Managment, essay writing skills and online communication skills


Present a perspective on the following:Time Managment, essay writing skills and online communication skills. Describe how you can use each of these 3 topics to succeed in your Master’sdegree. Review articles and sources with specific questions in mind (i.e., Does this article support my topic? How does this article apply to my topic? How am I going to use the details of this article in my paper?). The research paper must meet the following requirments: 1. Be at least 5 pages in length(not including the title page and refrences page)2. Include a topic associated with the value of masters degree orientation course. 3. Include at least three peer-reviewed articles. 4. Use APA Style.


A master’s degree can open the door for acquiring further knowledge which is essential for a accomplishing a higher degree of success in professional fields. It is a fact that attaining a bachelor’s degree is an achievement in itself and there is no less credit in acquiring one, but if an individual can achieve a master’s degree then he/she will be able to convey the higher level of knowledge in comparison to the knowledge gained in a bachelor’s degree. Moreover, having a master’s degree can pave the way for an individual to enhance his/her level of job competency and the professional arena along with job options will increase for the concerned individual. Besides, there are ample chances for individuals securing a master’s degree to have a job with greater remuneration and more security. But it is to be kept in mind that for securing a master’s degree one has to incorporate some vital skills into a master’s degree program to attain success. And among the most important skills time management skill, essay writing skill, and online communication skill are the three primary aspects which a student of a master’s degree program needs to complete the course and achieve the degree successfully.

There are some important factors which usually motivates individuals to opt for a master’s degree. Apart from the urge for gaining for knowledge in particular fields of expertise, individuals often choose to join master’s degree program as such a degree can surely ensure higher pay packages in the sphere of employment. And to support this fact one can cite that “U.S. Census Bureau studies show that those with an MBA typically earn around $10,000 more than employees with a bachelor’s degree” (Silvestri, n.d.). Hence, there are ample of reasons behind opting for joining a master’s degree course and eventually completing it successfully. But as mentioned before there are some essential skills needed to accomplish a master’s degree. And among them time management skill is a pivotal one. Time is the most essential factor in the realm of both education and profession. A person who lacks the skill of managing time is sure to secure lesser benefits than a person who has mastered the art of time management. It is a fact that a master’s degree program needs a rigorous study regime and being a student of a master’s degree course I should try to infuse my time management skills to secure better results. As I have realized that during my master’s degree course I may be faced with the challenge of balancing study, research, and social activities, I should try to enhance my time management skill by planning daily activities. And for doing this effectively I must differentiate important tasks from less important ones and determine which tasks require the most attention.

To enhance my skills of time management I should try to incorporate some specific strategies which include the setting of clear goals, breaking the goals down to discreet steps, and reviewing my own progress and all these steps should constitute my action planning (“How to Manage Your Time Effective”, n.d.). Moreover, to manage my time appropriately I have to follow the principle of prioritizing and should develop my skill of organizing the work schedule by making related to-do lists. Besides, I should always try to keep up my perseverance and should every time avoid the evil of procrastination as it is a menace which can hamper the entire educational progress which I am opting for in my master’s degree course. I should grow the habit of making individualized plans rather than the generalized ones. And this habit will help me a lot in prioritizing my tasks. Furthermore, I should try to formulate separate to-do lists to divide my time into time needed for household activities, social activities, and time needed for studying and searching for materials related to my master’s degree course. However, though I will try to focus on implementing the aforesaid strategies, I should always keep in mind that the greatest enemy to time management is procrastination and to do away with this evil it is important that “you manage ‘Your fear of doing things’ you don’t want to do and realize that the fear is often far worse than any possible negative results” (“How to Manage Your Time Effective”, n.d.).

I should also keep in mind that for managing my time effectively I should be able to identify the areas of my life in which I am wasting time. And this identification is very much essential as without trying to find out the sources of my time wastage I can never control my time properly by reducing those unnecessary activities. Besides, I must formulate and develop a daily work routine and should always try to accomplish my course-related tasks and assignments on time without going beyond the allotted deadline. Moreover, to manage my time effective I should try to make a time log for which I have to make a chart for the next seven days dividing each day into half hour intervals and I should note down my activities in each half hour of the concerned day (“How to Manage Your Time Effective”, n.d.), and all these records will surely help me to find out which task needs priority and which tasks don’t need so.

Now, apart from the time management skill I should also have the writing skill and specifically the essay writing skill to successfully complete my master’s degree course. Writing is the most challenging part in the entire process of studying and learning and in any master’s degree course it is the writing skill which is primarily needed for success. I am aware of the fact that most of the studies in the master’s degree level require analytical approach rather than a descriptive approach (Ratcliffe, n.d.), and hence, I should try to enhance my skills of present an argument in my analytical essays and through such argumentation logically I must establish my point of view to pursue my professors and my other audiences including my peers. It is a fact that “University essays are…arguments for or against certain propositions” (Ratcliffe, n.d.), and I should hone my skills of incorporating logical arguments in my essay papers during the master’s degree course.

In a master’s degree course there are often essay assignments which are meant for exploring particular issues or topics and through such exploration a student can expand his/her learning and understanding skills. So, I must enhance my essay writing skill in order to give myself opportunities to better in the subject of my expertise. And to show my writing skills during the entire master’s degree course I should try to produce good essays by presenting ideas and arguments in a logical and coherent manner and this can only be achieved through proper organization of the collected information. Moreover, through such process of essay writing I can also develop my analysis and synthesis skills (“Essay Writing, n.d.). Furthermore, as per my knowledge, at the initial stages of a master’s degree program “essays generally ask you to ‘outline’, ‘explain’, ‘explore’ or ‘describe’, and then as you progress you are required to ‘discuss’ and ‘critically evaluate’” (“Essay Writing, n.d.) and so I should try to focus on my skill of critically evaluating issues and should endeavor to better this particular skill for producing good essays that can pave the way for me to successfully complete my master’s degree course. I should try to learn and implement how to create an outline of my essay along with the process of generating topic idea. Besides, I should practice writing essays to improve my skill of formulating a good thesis statement which is the primary aspect of a good essay. And then I should try to improve my skill of composing logical and interrelated body paragraphs and finally should try to compose a good conclusion of my essay which will definitely provide the readers of my essay with a closure that can sum up the essay’s points or can provide a final viewpoint about the topic of discussion (Walker, 2005).

Finally, I should whet my online communication skills as in this era of technological boost online communication is very much needed in the realm of any kind of educational course including a master’s degree course. I am aware of the fact that to succeed in my master’s degree course I should learn effective communication strategies and being a student of online master’s degree course it is very much essential for me to acquire the basic online communication skills to effective complete my master’s degree course. I should follow the online etiquettes and accordingly should email my instructor if there is any clarification needed in respect of any of the aspects of my course. I should learn correct emailing styles and etiquettes and should learn to post effective but concise messages on the discussion board. Moreover, I should learn the effective strategy of participation in the entire online learning process and this participation can earn me good opportunities of enhancing my progress in respect of my master’s degree course. I should log into “the classroom each and every day to complete learning activities, respond to discussion questions, post comments to classmates, attend the seminar, or even…socialize with classmates in the Cyber Café” (“Tips for Effective Online Communication”, n.d.). And the implementation of all these strategies will not only help me in exchanging ideas with my fellow students but will also provide me with scopes of interacting with my instructor frequently and such frequency will help me in resolving problems and progress in a faster manner to accomplish my academic objectives.

In conclusion, to effectively carry on with and complete my master’s degree course I should learn to effectively incorporate some basic skills and among them the skill of time management, essay writing, and online communication are primary. I am aware of the fact that the amalgamation of all these skills will definitely help me in completing my master’s degree course in an effective manner and it will also pave the way for me to obtain vast knowledge in respect of the subject in which I am going to achieve a master’s degree.

(1,695 words)











Essay writing. (n.d.). Edinburgh Napier University. Retrieved September 26, 2012, from

How to manage your time effectively. (n.d.). University of Kent – the UK’s European university. Retrieved September 26, 2012, from

Ratcliffe, J. (n.d.). Essay writing guide. Jerry Ratcliffe’s homepage. Retrieved September 26, 2012, from

Silvestri, E. (n.d.). Why is a Master’s Degree Important? eHow | How to Videos, Articles & More – Discover the expert in you. | Retrieved September 26, 2012, from

Tips for Effective Online Communication. (n.d.). Kaplan University Open Course Ware Site. Retrieved September 26, 2012, from

Walker, V. (2005). How to Improve Your Essay Writing Skills. PoeWar – John Hewitt’s Blog. Retrieved September 26, 2012, from


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