the movie, World Trade Center (2006) by Director Oliver Stone


For this assignment, you are to watch the movie, World Trade Center (2006) by Director Oliver Stone. After viewing the movie, complete a 3-page critique of the movie in which you must explore the nature of the crisis presented, and will then suggest steps for alleviating the crisis, teaching coping skills, and developing resiliency. The paper must be written in current APA format.


World Trade Center movie is a drama film which is based on the 9/11 Attacks at the World Trade Center. This film is directed by Oliver Stone and has a star cast of Nicholas Cage, Michael Pena, Maria Bello, Michael Shannon and Stephen Dorff. This film came into the market on 9th August, 2006. It was shot in between year 2005 and 2006. This movie talks about the attacks which happened on the World Trade Center in the year 2006. The duo combo John McLaughlin and Will Jimeno gets trapped who are trying to rescue people from this trap. Many people have undergone emotional and psychological trauma. On the other side, people who are buried need to be rescued. There are many people who died on that day and many who survived. This movie also provides steps for dealing in crisis, developing resiliency and teaching coping skills. They started the evacuation process in the starting of the day on September 2011 up to nearly 24 hours. The men, their families and their wives had agonized hours waiting for them to return home. The character of Sergeant McLaughlin was played by Nicholas Cage. He just goes inside the World Trade Center to evacuate without having any plans to deal with this massacre. Will Jimeno wants to prove his worth on the job and also goes in. This role is played by Michael Pena. This movie mainly focuses on the emotional and psychological trauma which the port authority offices, their families and other public who have suffered. The movie showcased that an Islamic extremist group hijacked four airliners and carried this suicide attacks in USA. Out of the four airliners, two of them were flown in the World Trade Center in the City of New York and the third one had hit the pentagon. The fourth plan was hit in the field of Pennsylvania. There was nature of shock, disbelief, anger, terrific nature. This teaches us the lesson to deal with crisis, teaching coping skills and developing resiliency. The crisis story is shown here in the film where everyone gets up like a normal day and starts to leave for the work. They do not know what is going to happen to them next and how their lives would change forever. Here the crisis shown is situational crisis. This cannot be forecasted or controlled. No one neither the officers nor their families are prepared for such a tragic event. The film showcased that John and Will are trapped in WTC building and knows that other officers have died. One of the officers who is next to John and Jimeno have committed suicide. During this time, both of them are talking of their family, children and wives. They do not want to die but they see a possibility to die. At the same time, stress and trauma is seen in their wives also. McLaughlin’s wife is waiting for John to come back home. She goes back and memorises the memories she has with husband and kids. Jimeno’s wife is expecting a kid and wants to know her husband is ok or not. This movie teaches us the coping skills and steps to alleviate crisis. While both the officers are facing death in the WTC, the family and friends are in crisis. Crisis can be intervened by the use of verbal and no verbal communication to those who are in crisis. This will encourage, build confidence in them. Everyone needed someone’s help to validate the emotions and feelings they were having. Media here played an important role in talking about what was going on. This helped to cope the families and friends of officers as well as other people who were stucked. We also learn different coping skills from this movie. The officers who were stucked inside talked about their families, wives and children. They were positive which helped them. They believed that they could survive this. Every individual would respond differently to the trauma and show distress, anger and loneliness. It is the responder’s job to know what the opponent is going through and develop coping skills. First of all not think of the situation at all, not causing them fearful experiences. John and Will were trapped inside and could not help others. But they could donate blood and volunteer. Hence, this film teaches us steps to alleviate crisis and teaching us coping skills. This film also teaches us to develop resiliency. Resiliency is the ability to act when things do not go in a planned direction. Resilient people possess challenge, commitment, control. The movie is a perfect example of this. The two officers are committed in their work and want to help other people to rescue. They took this challenging role without any fear and committed towards their family as well. Even when there was a situation of life and death, they were talking about their wives and children. Some of the ways in developing resiliency is to focus on thinking positively and learn from the past mistakes. If we have a strong relationship with our colleagues, friends, family then they will always look back upon us. This was the case of the two officers. They have a support network to fall back on. Self confidence and working on to achieve personal goals will also help in developing resiliency.


Clinton, T., Hart, A., & Ohlschlager, G. (2005). Caring for people God’s way: Personal and emotional issues, addictions, grief, and trauma . Nashville, Tn:

Thomas Nelson. James, R. K., & Gilliland, B. E. (2013). Crisis intervention strategies (7th ed.). Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole.

Stone, O. (Director). (2006). World trade center [DVD Video file]. Retrieved from

Wright, H. N. (2011). The complete guide to crisis & trauma counseling: What to do and say when it matters most . Ventura, CA: Regal

how information and news media have affected American Culture


Write a 750 word essay in which you discuss how information and news media have affected American Culture. Include answers to the following questions.

1. Does the information media have social responsibility? If yes, in what ways? If not, why not?

2. Are journalists responsible for providing fair, honest, and balanced coverage?

3. What is the role of the information and news media in the shaping of political opinions?

4.How does political news reporting–including major newspapers and political websites such as Drudge Report, Daily Kos, or Colbert Nation–influence public opinion?

5.How have electronic media and their convergence transformed journalism and news consumption?

Illustrate your responses with specific examples.

Be sure to document any information that is not common knowledge.

Include at least two direct quotations from reading material .

Direct quotes must be enclosed in quotation marks and be accompained both in-text and reference page citations.

Format your paper consistentwith APA guidelines


Information and News Media and their Impact on American Culture


There are multiple factors and forces that shape American society altogether. The media has profoundly affected on how we look at the world. Not to mention, media has affected the society in positive and negative both ways. Everything has its pro and cons and so does it have but when pros are more than cons, the situation is alarming great problems for a society. TV has affected enormously the lives of people of all ages, races, religions, sizes, and sexes. Recent studies show that TV has negative impacts on the culture of the country as whole. Media is a hindrance to the society of America as it creates image problem, causes more violence, and deteriorates self-esteem. Also, it induces stereotypes. Television is detrimental to the society due to its violence factor. McClure says, “Did you know that: The average third grader has witness 16,000 TV murders? By the age of 17 most children will have viewed at least 400,000 sexual acts on television? Our greatest battlefield in this new is for the minds and hearts of our children”.

Media and Journalists and Social Responsibility

Empowering media is a sign of true democracy but media should not misuse that empowerment and should operate in a socially responsible manner. Media works as a guide to the people of the society and thus the responsibility becomes bigger. There are people who have blind faith in media and they are convinced and follow whatever is declared correct by media. Thus, it is responsibility of the media to guide people in right direction. Journalists play a pivotal role in overall delivery of information. They should be fair and honest and cover the right issues (Dee, J., & Hans, V., 1991). They should work towards forming public opinion. They should cover the issues crucial for a good society and culture. They ought to

Information and News Media and their Impact on American Culture

work towards solving the issues by taking opinion of experts on the same. They should never appraise criminal activities rather they should condemn the same.

Information and News Media and Political Opinions

The media has a great role to play in forming the political opinion of people. For instance, the photographs of war on terrorism in Afghanistan and Iraq formed the opinion of the people towards the political party in power. The government was trying to justify its position on war. But after seeing the coverage and pictures from the war, people did not believe in the justification of the government. Such a heinous act can never be justified for any reason. A large number of people were murdered on the name of war against terrorism (Ang, I., 2006). With everything going online there is a shift in accessing the news. The people turn up to news websites such as Drudge Report, Daily Kos, or Colbert Nation for reading the news and have a better experience than newspapers. According to Greene, “They not only access the news but they see a large number of pictures and video on a certain issue and these interactive sites promote the public opinion as well. The opinions of multiple experts on an issue also affect the stand of people on political view.”

Electronic Media and News Consumption

The media has undergone a great transition due to emergence of electronic media. These media has transformed the way journalism used to be. People have experienced a shift in their news consumption behavior as well. People do not have to wait for the newspaper to come at their doorstep to access the news they can access the news anywhere and anytime. The handheld devices have offered more convenience to them and they can get news on their fingertips and on the move. A large number of people rely on television and news websites

Information and News Media and their Impact on American Culture

for daily news and updates. The technologies have added a great convenience to them in terms of accessing the news. The modern forms of media are more dominant than the traditional ones. The evolution of social networking sites has brought about transition in American culture (Bausinger, B., 2001).


Media has enormous effect on the American culture. The people take the contents of the media quite seriously and react accordingly. The media and journalists have responsibilities towards the society and they should only produce the contents that have positive effect on the society. They should avoid praising criminal act and should criticize such acts in every way possible. The information and news media play a big role in formulation of political opinion of the people and there can be seen a shift in how people access the news and information due to advent of new communication technologies.









Information and News Media and their Impact on American Culture


Ang, I. (2006). ‘Culture and Communication: Towards an Ethnographic Critique of Media Consumption in the Transnational Media System’, European Journal of Communication 5: 239–60.

Bausinger, B. (2001). Media, Technology and Daily Life. Media, Culture & Society 6(4): 343–51.

Dee, J., & Hans, V. (1991). Media Coverage of Law: its Impact on Juries and the Public. The America, 35, 136.

Greene, E. (2007). Media Effects on Jurors. Law and Human Behavior, 14, 439-450.

McClure, I. (1996). Living Room Wars: Rethinking Media Audiences for a Postmodern World. London: Routledge.

information and news media have affected American Culture


Write a 750 word essay in which you discuss how information and news media have affected American Culture. Include answers to the following questions.

1. Does the information media have social responsibility? If yes, in what ways? If not, why not?

2. Are journalists responsible for providing fair, honest, and balanced coverage?

3. What is the role of the information and news media in the shaping of political opinions?

4.How does political news reporting–including major newspapers and political websites such as Drudge Report, Daily Kos, or Colbert Nation–influence public opinion?

5.How have electronic media and their convergence transformed journalism and news consumption?

Illustrate your responses with specific examples.

Be sure to document any information that is not common knowledge.

Include at least two direct quotations from reading material .

Direct quotes must be enclosed in quotation marks and be accompained both in-text and reference page citations.

Format your paper consistentwith APA guidelines


Australian Government espouses the rhetoric of restorative justice



Cunneen and White argue that, whilst the Australian Government espouses the rhetoric of restorative justice, juvenile justice reforms instituted in recent years have contributed to the further marginalisation of disadvantaged youth.

Explain and discuss.


Juvenile Justice Reforms in Australia


The representation of young offenders has generated a lot of heat in Australia over the years. In many instances, juvenile issues are based on embellishment, stereotype ideas, and assumptions. Political views and media coverage depict young offenders as disrespectful and unfocused. Many incidences of youth gang are followed by a demand for bigger punishment to enable redemption. Youths are not expected to roam around the streets or visit each other. The society believes that youths need strict restrictions to grow up as mature and reasonable individuals. When the youth engage in inappropriate behaviour, the solution is harsh punishment in order to correct their ways. This twisted perspective on handling the youth’s behaviour reported on politics and media, has found its way in the juvenile justice system (Swain &, Rice, 2009).

The Challenges of the Juvenile System

Research indicates that hundreds of Australian youth are placed in juvenile detention centres every year. Other youths engage in crimes that warrant supervised bail, probation, parole, and pending detention. These young people are implicated in a complex justice system that aims at pulling them from ways of crime. Main areas of the current juvenile justice system have been improved in recent years to ensure that young people benefit from the system. This however, is not the case. According to Cunnen and White (2007, p. 105), juvenile justice system marginalises and criminalises the underprivileged youths. The socially disadvantaged young people are viewed as a problematic group and they face the callous realities of the system.

The Australian juvenile system is supervised from various territories namely, the youth agencies, and other justice groups like the police or courts. Researches in 2007 to 2008 indicate that an average of 4,708 youths was detained in juvenile centres on a daily basis. Thousands of other youths had some sort of supervision at some point in this period. The results also indicated that young people involved in crime increased drastically from 2004 to 2008. This shows that the juvenile system in Australia does not satisfactorily contribute to the reduction of crime among young individuals. The actual predicament here is that the majority of young people in detention did not have their cases reviewed and awaited their trails. The fact that the minority youth groups had pending cases is an issue that raised questions about the reliability of the justice system (Carrington & Pereira, 2010, p. 3-4).

Discrimination in Australian Juvenile System

The marginalised youth normally face discrimination in terms of class, social status and their family settings. The gap between the rich and the poor in Australia is huge. The job market is limited to a few young people as the minority youth are discriminated against and therefore seek to look for other means of survival. The minority youth in Australia come from certain ethnic backgrounds where basic resources are scarce. This means that education and state resources do not help these young people. These young people are represented in low incomes, poor education, unstable family settings and poor relationships. Most of these young people eventually find themselves in juvenile detention for various crimes (Fuller, 2012, p. 355-356).

The juvenile justice system has youths detained because of social inequality and this shows how the social structure is faulty. The system uses forceful measures to intervene the life of juveniles, making it difficult to change their unlawful conducts. The state does not treat equally the various social groups, as more under privileged youth are present in detention areas within Australia. Those from an African descent are also rampant in the prison walls. Dark coloured individuals are generally treated with disregard in England and the justice system is not an exception. This rooted institutional racism and poor distribution of communal resources shows how poorly the system is implemented. The society labels certain groups of young people as hopeless, low class, and criminals, a level of marginalisation experienced in the justice system (Cohen & Kluegel, 1978, pp. 162-163).

The society in Australia excludes young people based on family background, geographical location, racial standing and ethnic representation. The prison settings are crammed with people viewed as “useless” in the society. The youth learn to be hardheaded from the prison walls, thus making it difficult for them to change their lifestyles. Additionally, court cases are held depending on how popular or influential a certain individual stands in the society. This makes it difficult to value the life of prisoners in the setting through the tough economic times (Fuller, 2012, pp. 355-356).

Discrimination of Australian Natives or Aboriginals

According to Beresford, Partington and Gower (2012, pp. 237-238), native young Australians take in around 5% of the territory. However, 40% of juveniles in detention are indigenous. This over-representation of the natives in misdemeanour is disquieting. Further research indicates that young natives in Australia are marginalised both socially and economically. The discrimination of these young people resulted from a complex connection borne from cultural, social, and economic features that made them vulnerable to the legal system. The problems of poverty, family instability, poor education, and lack of jobs in the market have widened the gap for the young natives. The extreme discrimination has hence forced many in crime, violence and use of drugs. These minority Australian natives are detained while 60% of them still await their court hearings.

The issue of discrimination has also resulted in low self-esteem in many young people. These young people are aware that they are not entirely acknowledged in the society. They squander a lot of time in demanding to find an identity within a diverse society where their personal heritage is not meaningful. Many of these young people end up adapting defensive behaviours and escaping the society’s laws. Once they engage in crime, they feel appreciated by their counterparts in the criminal setting. Young people of this nature are swallowed in the life of crime because they get hold of an identity. The justice system does not understand the full picture of the younger generation trying to survive in the society. Harsh laws are the only way the system uses as a means of rectifying their behaviours (Blagg, 2008, pp. 61-62).

The data from South Australian Children’s Protection and Young Offenders’ Act (1979) shows, all juvenile cases are submitted to a Screening Panel to determine if the child need cautioning or a reference to the Juvenile Court. Out of the cases reviewed, 69% of Australian young natives were taken straight to the Juvenile Court unlike the non-natives. This harsh punishment on young natives is increasingly being recorded which depicts that the system needs to be rectified. The cases need to be analysed, depending on an individual and not his or her race, or social status. The system should come up with conclusive data on the reasons why many young natives are involved in crime. The research should also indicate the reasons why the juvenile system has overwhelming numbers of young natives as offenders, while they remain the smallest population in Australia (Blagg, 2008, pp. 61-62).

Gender Discrimination in Australian Juvenile System

The Australian juvenile system adopts a chauvinist model through assumptions in various levels. The system has put emphasis on the male part of criminals and alienated the young women. Young women are forced to remain subordinates and invisible. Women who do not conform to the required societal norms are punished and the system demands the devotion to their feminine status. It is clear that many of the programs and laws in the juvenile system are largely dependent on the experiences of young men. In this way, the issues that force women to crime are not researched. Their issues are viewed as insignificant in Australia and there are no policies set up to rectify this in the juvenile system. Young people encounter varied experiences depending on their gender an indication that does not reflect in the juvenile justice system. The assimilation of the entire system for both young men and women does not help in understanding the reasons why women engage in crime (Muncie & Goldson, 2006, p. 127).

The other problem that is not indicated in this system is various issues affecting the genders. This includes the social setting, race, and class of both women and young men. There is enough research to show the minority young native women are over-represented in the juvenile detention. The young women in custody suffer many issues of abuse like rape and sexual assaults. This offending behaviour is rampant in most detention centres from both administrators and law enforcing officers. The authority figures are mainly white men. and women have to bend to their rules or face consequences. Most men involved in crimes are because of rebellious actions or for show of masculinity. However, young women involved in crime results from a need to alleviate from the family. Mainly, over 70% of women have put their trust in family men and this trust has often been thrashed through sexual assaults or rape. These are young women run to the streets and eventually get involved in crime as a means of survival (Daly, 1987, pp. 165-166).

Juvenile delinquency in the justice system is based on views and experiences of young men. This perception has led to the creation of laws and policies that control the youth. Young women’s issues and problems are not considered, rather, they are judged in programs designed for all young people. There is a reality that criminal activities are masculine and therefore any woman who deviates to criminal acts is seen as less feminine. The women’s issues are fully ignored and the juvenile justice, releases collectively punishment equally for both young men and women. No actual measures are taken, in order to improve on the programs of young women who involve in crimes. This is a big failure within the Australian juvenile justice system for lack of support in highlighting the minority women’s issues. Women are required to have feminine attributes and deviating from this societal customs, warrant severe punishment without any considerations (Daly, 1987, pp. 165-166).

Age Considerations in the Juvenile Justice System

The issue of prosecuting young adolescents has generated a lot of heat in Australia. In most cases, adolescents are neither perceived as children nor adults. The question that arises is the degree of the adolescent understanding of their actions when sent into a juvenile court. Australian politicians and lawmakers have the discernment that adolescents are criminals whose actions are led by a great level of immaturity. Others argue that these children should be tried as criminals in court so that they are accountable for their destructive actions. These views have generated a lot of debate on the way forward (Berfanger, 2010, p. 9).

The idea that some adolescents are more dangerous and destructive than adult criminals are should not be the basis of the argument. The percentage of young adolescents who commit violent crime is very low compared to other older youths. These young adolescents need to be tried in a just and fair court, because of their tender age. The Australian juvenile system should consider the life of these young people and use programs that rehabilitate them from a life of crime. This is the only approach to make certain that they do not end up in criminal activities once released from detention. Strong values and programs need to be incorporated in the juvenile system through the efforts of the government and society at large (Berfanger, 2010, p. 9).

The Police Role in Juvenile System

The law enforcement have a huge responsibility in the implementation of the juvenile justice system. The high class in Australian society does not warrant the police public requirements of law and order unlike the underprivileged youth. Theft and police chasing stolen cars is more common with the juvenile natives or black youths. Despite the widespread awareness on various issues, powerful politicians, media managers, and other forces are responsible for the manifestation of law and order. How does this affect the juvenile system and its proper implementation? The powerful forces behind the justice system do not understand fully juvenile crimes, a factor that has led to misinterpretations within the system. This is why the police invade issues of the youth especially when young people frequent public places. The youth are not expected to spend time in public and this is where young people entertain themselves. This results in conflicts with the police since young people need room to socialise and look for survival tactics (Siegel & Welsh, 2011, pp. 637-638).

The police always approach young people in public places, take their names, and request the nature of their involvement in that particular place. This occurs even when the young individuals are not engaging in criminal activities or mischievous behaviours. Young native Australians and street youths collide mostly with police since they frequent public places while seeking for jobs. These young people cannot avoid public places since they are not in school and are neither working nor looking for work. These young people collide with police because they feel harassed when names are checked and this results in resistance. This automatically leads to criminal charges, and thus the large number of minority youth offenders in juvenile detention. The population of native youths in Australia is quite small and they are still individuals who are in constant battles with the police (Siegel & Welsh, 2011, pp. 647-648).

Children’s Court

The Australian children’s court is responsible for criminal activities of young offenders who are under 18 years. The court is also responsible for the protection of the youth through the review of the cases and offering the right punishment. Young populace should be eligible for trial through the Young Offenders Act. However, the children’s court does not deal with cases of young people with serious criminal acts like murder or crimes that warrant over 25 years of incarceration. Traffic crimes are also not tried in the Children Court, but rather another body of government is responsible. There is a need of caution and thorough review when handing punishment to young offenders. There are those who need probation control, others are cautioned, while others are detained (Butler, et al, 2008).

Young children cases are determined by the nature of the crime and the circumstances involved. In most instances, the juvenile system does not review any prior experience that resulted in life in crime. Some youths are victims of abuse and discrimination but the justice system does not put this into consideration. There is a need to review an individual’s past so that the right help is accorded appropriately. If a young person is detained with feelings of discrimination, then he or she will likely end up in criminal activities to retaliate the punishment once released (Butler, et al, 2008).


The society, politics, media, and family settings are crucial in setting straight the juvenile justice system. The disadvantaged youth at all levels fail to respect the law and this heightens police stereotype in reproaching their crimes. The police and children’s court need to understand the underlying problems for juvenile crimes to straighten the system. The juvenile system does not support the idea that many young people over grow their crime and mature into responsible citizens. This has led to harsh punishments being laid out for young offenders. The system needs to review its programs, practices, and racial injustices, in order to assist adequately the young offenders revert from wrongdoing.


Beresford, Q., Partington, G. & Gower, G. (2012). Reform and Resistance in Aboriginal Education. Eastbourne: Sussex Academic Press.

Berfanger, R. (2010). Juvenile reform continues after ’09 summit. Indiana Lawyer, 21(15), 4-9.

Blagg, H. (2008). Crime, Aboriginality and Decolonisation of Justice. Australia: Hawkins Press

Butler, T., Belcher, J. M., Champion, U., Kenny, D., Allerton, M., & Fasher, M. (2008). The physical health status of young Australian offenders. Australian & New Zealand Journal Of Public Health, 32 (1), 73-80. doi:10.1111/j.1753-6405.2008.00169.x.

Carrington, E., & Pereira, M. (2010). Offending Youth: Sex, Crime and Justice. Australia: Federation Press.

Cohen, L. E., & Kluegel, J. R. (1978). Determinants of Juvenile Court Dispositions: Ascriptive and Achieved Factors in Two Metropolitan Courts. American Sociological Review, 43 (2), 162-176.

Cunneen, C., & White, R. (2007). Juvenile Justice: Youth and Crime in Australia. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Daly, K. (1987). Discrimination in the Criminal Courts: Family, Gender, and the Problem of Equal Treatment. Social Forces, 66 (1), 152.

Fleming, J. (2008). Managing the Diary: What Does a Police Commissioner Do?. Public Administration, 86(3), 679-698. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9299.2008.00748.x.

Fuller, J. (2012). Juvenile Delinquency: Mainstream and Crosscurrents. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Muncie, J., & Goldson, B. (2006). Comparative Youth Justice. California, CA: Pine Forge Press.

Siegel, L., & Welsh, B. (2011). Juvenile Delinquency:Theory, Practice, and Law. United Kingdom: Cengage Learning.

Swain, P., & Rice, S. (2009). In the Shadow of the Law. Australia: Federation Press.

Leucippus and Democritus


What principles (archai) of explanation do the Atomists (Leucippus and Democritus) posit and how do they use them in their cosmology? How does atomism lead to a mechanistic and deterministic view of reality?Is this view problematic?

I have attached the pages that required to take the information from them and cite for your answre ofthis qusetion.

Also, I want it like an essay form and this solutions should be, one page in length, double-spaced with a font size no smaller than 10 and no larger than 12, please.

Thank you.


Leucippus and Democritus

The Principles of Explanation that Leucippus and Democritus Posit

Leucippus and Democritus put forward the principle of atomism, which is the scientific and metaphysical theory. They defined atoms as small infinite bodies that are usually indivisible, qualitatively similar, imperishable, and distinguishable in their shapes. They noted that the small infinite bodies are in constant motion moving through their void, colliding against themselves, hence generating differing objects in terms of shape, size, arrangement, and the number of atoms that comprise them (“Leucippus and Democritus…,” n.d, pp. 80-81).

How Leucippus and Democritus use the Principles in their Cosmology

Leucippus and Democritus used the principle of atomism to give their views on connectivity and shapes found in objects. They both reasoned that the solid nature found in materials takes the shape of the atoms found in them. They concluded that iron atoms are strong and solid because of the hooks that hold them in solid form, water atoms are relatively smooth and slippery, salt atoms are tasty because of their sharp pointed nature, and air atoms are light and always in spinning motion (“Leucippus and Democritus…,” n.d, pp. 82-83).

How Atomism leads to Mechanism and Deterministic View of Reality

The atomism principle helps in understanding reality as it proposes that there must be conditions behind anything that happens and without those conditions, nothing can happen. Mechanism and deterministic view refers to causal determinism, which is also known as cause-and-effect. It is the concept of atomism that leads to the mechanism and deterministic view of reality because behind any resultant paradigm or idea, there must be a cause (“Leucippus and Democritus…,” n.d, p. 84).

Is the Mechanism and Deterministic view of Reality Problematic?

It is sometimes noted that mechanism and deterministic view of reality is confused with self-determination of human actions, which include desires, motives and reason. This leads to deterministic problem. It is important to note that determinism does not demand a perfect prediction be realistic, rather prediction is not guaranteed. In addition, other deterministic theories seek only to stress the importance of a given factor in making future predictions. Such theories use the factor as a constraint or guide on making predictions about the future (Leucippus and Democritus, n.d, pp.89-90).



Leucippus and Democritus: Fifth-Century Atomism. (n.d). The Presocratic and the Sophists.

the Logos doctrine of Heraclitus


Summarize the Logos doctrine of Heraclitus?

( For Philosophy)

I want you to write it like an essay form, and cite it that from where you sumerize it. I have attached to you the pages that requaired for this solution.

Also,theSolutions should be, one page in length, double-spaced with a font size no smaller than 10 and no larger than 12.




A Summary of the Logos Doctrine of Heraclitus

The Logos doctrine of Heraclitus refers to the principle that determines change in all things. In his principle, Heraclitus argues that there is a logical structure to the universe, which controls and orders the universe. The Logos, according to Heraclitus, form the physics that helps understand and see all things unified in it. Note, the Logos is not perceived as the material out of which all things emerged from, although it is the origin of all things since it forms the basis for arrangement in everything. According to Heraclitus, the Logos were the mind of God, although the justification for this claim in relation to his theory is not clear. It is assumed A Summary of the Logos Doctrine of Heraclitus

The Logos doctrine of Heraclitus refers to the principle that determines change in all things. In his principle, Heraclitus argues that there is a logical structure to the universe, which controls and orders the universe. The Logos, according to Heraclitus, form the physics that helps understand and see all things unified in it. Note, the Logos is not that Heraclitus likened the logos to the mind of God because of the controlling ability of it, in nature. Additionally, the existence of the logos is found directly in the physical world, which is controlled by God. A strange notion is how Heraclitus views the logos as part of the world similar to how air and water form part of the world (Roberts-Gillon, 2005, p. 5).

The logos serve two purposes, which include a basic concept of the metaphysics and a basic principle of Heraclitus epistemology. By understanding the logos, human beings are able to make sense of their experiences. However, Heraclitus notes that though the logos form an independent existing truth available to all human being, most people fail to identify it. Firstly, Heraclitus likens those individuals who fail to make use of the logos in understanding nature to sleepers. He says that just like sleeping minds, the mind that fails to understand the logos is incapable of obtaining information from the outside world. This is because what entails a sleeping mind is purely subjective and has nothing to do with the real world. Secondly, those individuals who seek to understand nature without utilising the logos only acquire individual subjective worlds and not the real objective world. In addition, Heraclitus also compares the same individuals to barbarians or people who do not understand Greek language. According to Heraclitus, inability to understand a language means that whatever is said is just but noise to another person. He notes that in the experience of the world, people fail to make sense of language simply for the reason that they do not comprehend the logos, which is the idiom of nature. He concludes that in order to acquire knowledge from facts, it is mandatory that human beings understand how facts relate to the logos (Roberts-Gillon, 2005, pp. 4-5).



Roberts-Gillon, J., (2005). Nietzsche, Heraclitus, and Interpretation. Aporia Vol. 15 number 1—2005. Retrieved from <>

First, Fourth, Fifth, Sixth, and Fourteenth Amendments to the United States Constitution


Analyze the First, Fourth, Fifth, Sixth, and Fourteenth Amendments to the United States Constitution.

Write a 1,750- to 2,250-word paper on the relationship between these parts of the Bill of Rights and the administration of justice and security.

Compare and evaluate the various areas of the criminal justice system and security by addressing the following:

· The objectives of and the challenges facing various federal, state, and local law enforcement agencies

· Roles of the federal, state, and local court systems with respect to public safety


Bill of Rights

The First Amendment of the US Constitution

The First Amendment of the United States’ constitution gives citizens the freedom to worship, share ideas, and opinions. The amendment enables American citizens to form and engage in any kind of religion that they deem fit. Consequently, citizens have the freedom to meet and share their perceptions. Such opinions include and individuals view about a given issue (“The United States Constitution,” 2012). Americans have the right to ensure that the government has set measures and mechanism to follow in seeking remedy in case of their rights violation.

The Forth Amendment of the US Constitution

The Forth Amendment provides for protection of Americans and their property. This is whereby every American has the right to safety irrespective of their location. The forth amendment also provides for the right to own property (“The United States Constitution,” 2012). This enables citizens to acquire any property of their choice within the boarders of America. It also provides for formal and clear identification from the authority in cases of confiscation. This allows the citizens and their property to be protected from random arrest and unknown inspections.

The Fifth Amendment to the US Constitution

According to the Fifth Amendment, the citizens of Americans are protected against criminal charges they never committed (“The United States Constitution,” 2012). This amendment allows citizens to neither respond nor give evidence to cases without a warrant or authorisation from a legal body. The fifth amendment of the constitution enables citizens to enjoy protection of their rights following procedures that guard them against false charges.


The Sixth Amendment to the US Constitution

The Sixth Amendment allows for an efficient and just trial of citizens charged in the court of law. This enables the accused to enjoy equal rights similar to the other citizens before they are proven guilty. This amendment also states that persons charged with a criminal offence should be informed adequately of the sources and basis upon which accusations are made against him or her. This is geared towards ensuring justice among the accused citizens. It also provides for the defence of the rights of the accused. The sixth amendment allows persons charged with criminal offences to enjoy the legal process as required by the court (“The United States Constitution,” 2012).

The Fourteenth Amendment to the US Constitution

The Fourteenth Amendment is divided into five different sections. This amendment provides for a balanced protection for all the legal citizens’ social, political and financial issues. It is evident in the first section of this amendment that one can become a citizen of America by either birth or naturalisation (“The United States Constitution,” 2012). All persons born within America rightfully become citizens of America. It is through this amendment that such persons have the right to similar benefits to the other citizens. The fourteenth amendment allows foreigners to become citizens of America through naturalisation. This is only possible for individuals who have permanently lived in America for not less than five years.

This amendment also defines the political leadership for Americans. The second section of this amendment identifies the minimum qualifications required for one to become a political leader in America. This helps to establish mechanisms for equal distribution resources among the different states in America. In its obligation of financial protection, the forth section in this amendment provides for the protection of public finances and claims (“The United States Constitution,” 2012).

Relationship between these Parts of the Bill of Rights and the Administration of Justice and Security

The Bill of Rights is a basic tool in the implementation of justice and security in America (Constitution Society, 2011). Amendments found within the Bill of Rights significantly help in the administration of justice and security. Through these amendments, citizens have been able to acquire adequate protection of their rights and freedoms and as a result made America a better place to live in. Initially, the constitution of America only championed for a section of the inhabitants of America. The amendments have enabled the shift from protecting a section of the citizens to protecting the entire inhabitants of America. Consequently, amendments have allowed for the provision of just judicial system thus securing the needs of the citizens.

According to Lewis (2002, p. 76), the first amendment in the bill of rights enables the provision for freedom of speech and religion. This allows individuals to freely hold meetings, worship and conduct discussions. It is through this amendment that the worshipers cannot be arrested or intimidated by the police for their activities. Mechanism of seeking for redress is another key element of justice. The first amendment allows citizens to get efficient remedy in situations where their rights have been violated (Lewis, 2002, p. 76).

The forth amendment of the bill of rights helps to protect and uphold property owned by different citizens. It is through this amendment that citizens are free to legally own and operate business premises at any given state in America. Individuals would therefore transact and live peacefully without fear of eviction and prejudice. This has also helped uphold peaceful coexistence among the different races found in America. Equal protection of human rights and freedom has been enhanced in the fourteenth amendment. This amendment allows for the protection of social issues including marriage. One is therefore free to marry and interact with the people of their choices without fear of intimidation. The forth amendment has also enabled the entire population to be subjected to an equal share of the national cake through equal distribution of resources (Lewis, 2002, p. 76).

Objectives of Federal, State, and Local Law Enforcement Agencies

Local law enforcement agencies in the US vary from federal to state. These agencies carry out similar duties within the different specified areas of jurisdiction. Different branches that constitute the government provide for the operations of these agencies. The basic objective of these agencies is to enhance order through the implementation of the law. It is through order that the citizens coexist peacefully thus enabling the government achieve its set objectives. Creation and execution of law therefore enables the protection of the country’s citizens (Association of Law Enforcement Intelligence Units, 2012).

Law enforcement agencies work towards reducing crime in the country. Criminal offenders are usually arrested and charged in different courts of law. The law enforcement agencies ensure that criminals are charged and appropriate measures taken. These agencies also ensure prosecution where the law breakers are face legal procedures in determining their innocence. Through these procedures, citizens are able to enjoy justice and security of their rights. Their rights are ultimately protected in addition to the maintenance of order in the society. The judiciary also helps in overseeing the enforcement of laws. This component of the law agencies ensures that different judicial systems adhere to the law of America during prosecution (Association of Law Enforcement Intelligence Units, 2012).

Establishment of useful members in the society is the mandate of the law agencies. These agencies use different mechanisms to correct lawbreakers. Imprisonment and rehabilitation are the common methods used to correct lawbreakers. Criminals are usually sentenced to imprisonment over the crimes they commit. The intensity of these penalties varies with the type of offence committed. Through this objective, law enforcement agencies have endeavoured to create responsible members in the society thus making America a better place. Other correctional tools used include compensations through payment of fine and house arrest (Federal Judicial Centre, n.d).

Challenges Facing Federal, State and Local Law Enforcement Agencies

Lack of good governance is a major challenge faced by the law enforcement agencies. This is brought about by the weak mechanisms put to monitor the entire judicial processes within the country. Existence of corruption within the judicial systems has greatly undermined the enforcement of law. The use of incompetent judges to conduct cases has also led to promotion of injustice. Bad governance has therefore hindered the total restoration of order in the country.

Advanced technology has greatly hindered the detection of crime. This is evident by the fact that criminals are able to hack into the systems of law enforcement agencies thus lowering the systems efficiencies. The lawbreakers to make new and tactical moves making it difficult for their arrest have used minor errors and systems hacking. It is due to this reason that most of the criminals commit crime and go unpunished (Association of Law Enforcement Intelligence Units, 2012).

Inadequate human resource required to counter crime has also undermined the functioning of law enforcement agencies. This is evident by the increased number of population with respect to the low protection capacity. Most of the citizen’s protection is therefore not accounted for. The smaller number of police officer in relation to the growing population has undermined implementation of the law thus increasing levels of violation without detection.

Roles of the Federal, State and Local Court Systems

The court system in America has the responsibility of executing and implementing law. The court systems ensure that the citizens adhere to the established laws. It is therefore the mandate of these court systems to punish citizens who break and undermine the law. This is whereby persons found and proven guilty are sentenced by the court systems. Enforcement of law has been made possible using other structures including the police force (Federal Judicial Centre, n.d).

Interpretation of the law is an essential role of the court system. The courts ensure that the public understands the content of the constitution. This is made possible by explaining to the citizens the meanings and requirements of clauses and amendments that exist within the law. The basic component of adhering to the law entails the knowledge of the law itself. The court systems use the proficiency of the judges and lawyers to interpret the law to the public (Federal Judicial Centre, n.d).

The court systems in America have the mandate to create other common laws and nullify the conflicting laws. Cancellation of conflicting laws in this case implies the ability of the court system to reject unlawful clauses stated in the constitution.

Objectives of the Juvenile Justice System

The Juvenile justice system has the powers to hear and charge criminal offenders under the age of 18. According to McCord (2001, p. 65), the 18 year old and under criminals are usually referred to as minors. Juvenile Systems seeks to ensure the protection of minors against their own unlawful actions. It is therefore the responsibility of these systems to reduce crime among the minors. These juvenile systems are capable of ensuring that the minors responsibly account for their criminal offence (McCord, 2001, p. 65-67).

The juvenile justice system is geared towards transforming younger criminals to enable them become better members of the society. This is evident by the fact that minors involved in criminal acts are charged in the juvenile courts and sentenced to juvenile rehabilitation. These minors therefore transition to become responsible individuals. Establishment of peaceful coexistence is also the mandate of the juvenile systems. Through this objective, juvenile systems help in lowering the level of crime in the society (Minnesota House of Representative, 2002).

The Roles of Private Security Organisations

Private Security Organisations in America provide extensive security services to both the corporate institutions and the public (Strom, 2010). This is unlike the public law enforcement agencies, which provide its protection services free. These urgencies have helped the government achieve the objective of citizen’s protection in accordance to the fourteenth amendment of the bill of rights; citizens and their property are subjected to the right of protection against danger and other risks.

The core values of the private security organisation have been established on the key requirements of the American constitution. This has enabled these organisations uphold and maintain the enforcement of the law (Strom, 2010). It is therefore the duty of these private security organisations to enable a peaceful environment for the citizen’s of America.

Solutions to the Various Challenges Facing Criminal Justice and Security Organisations

Establishment of an efficient system of governance within the criminal justice will greatly lower corruption. This is evident by the flaws experienced within the judicial system and the security organisations. Good governance will also maintain proficiency in law enforcement procedure thus uphold justice. Use of advanced technology in establishing crime would improve citizen’s protection. This would also counter the latest moves intended by the criminals thus creating a peaceful society. Increased security therefore leads to protection of the rights of the citizens. Recruitment of more citizens into the security organisation would greatly improve the work force needed. This is due to the high population growth rate as compared to the less security officers available for the enforcement of law.


Association of Law Enforcement Intelligence Units (LEIU). (2012). History Purpose and Operations. Retrieved from <>

Constitution Society. (2011). Bill of Rights. Retrieved from <>

Federal Judicial Centre. (n.d). The US Legal System: A Short Description. Retrieved on 26, 2012 from$file/U.S._Legal_System_English07.pdf

Lewis, T. T. (2002). The Bill of Rights. Pasadena, California: Salem Press.

McCord, J., Widom, C. S., & Crowell, N. A. (2001). Juvenile crime, juvenile justice. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

Minnesota House of Representative. (2002). Juvenile Justice System. Retrieved from <>

Strom, K., et al. (2010). The Private Security Industry: A Review of the Definitions, Available Data Sources, and Paths Moving Forward. Retrieved from <>

The United States Constitution. (2012). Retrieved from <>


Organization, time management, and effective communication are key elements to online learning


Organization, time management, and effective communication are key elements to online learning. Discuss how you can use each of these elements toward your professional career as a project manager.

Your answer should be a minimum of 500 of your own words. Provide at least 3 reference citations for your source material.
The answer should beapproximately500 words using APA style formatting.


Organization, time management and effective and proper communication are three main important aspects that help a person to grow and develop in life our any business sphere. Time management is a art that every human being should learn how to manage and use it resourcefully. Time management helps us to be prepared for the future and face any kind of obstacle (Sasson, 2008). By time management people can effectively organize their days which would in turn organize their days. To become a good project manager that too in a business like online learning it is very necessary to have everything planner properly . Planning helps in organizing weekly schedules, month’s days etc. time management is set of skills, principles that help every person to achieve what they want specially in their professional careers. Time is such kind of resource that once gone cannot be brought back for careers such as project manager in online learning there is always a lack of time problem they scope of such business is very large so in this wisely using time helps in to achieve goals and help in changing the poor finances of the organization (Ozimek , 2012). Time management will help the project manager in setting up his priorities that in 24 hours which work is more important to complete. Even small time management helps the person to get closer to achieve his goals and make progress in business, just like time management is very important same way effective communication is very necessary. If a manager is not able to communicate properly than he won’t be able to guide his sub ordinates and juniors properly which will in all effect the working of the organization. Having good communication skills like proper grammar, speaking skills etc is must for a project manager . Any manager who doesn’t use proper grammar while communicating skills with his employees or specially clients leaves a big bad impression of the company in them . Lack of communication can create big disasters for organization (Moattar, 2012). Every manager should remember that communication is the basic foundation for all team performance as teams members can coordinate only through good coordination with each other. In business like online exchange of information is very important at every step so only from smooth communication a simple exchange of information can be done. But there are many factors that can cause problems in effective communication like when the team is too large, when members of team are not working properly and not behaving professionally. Without having proper organization in the organization the project manager won’t be able to complete his work and duties on time. If a business organization is properly organized than any form of business while have a great life and than its productivity and quality will keep on growing from time to time . Organizing helps the managers in allotting work to their subordinates and getting work form them without many misunderstandings and this would in turn lead to more customer satisfaction and increase the number of clients for the company (Baum, 2012). Thus the above time management, organization and effective communication plays a big role in professional any project manager who handles business like online learning.





Baum, D. (2012, decemeber). Organisationa l behaviour. Retrieved from


Moattar, M. H. (2012, january 12). communication articles. Retrieved from

Ozimek , E. (2012, MARCH). time managment. Retrieved from


Sasson, S. (2008, may 20). Importance of time management. Retrieved from

Criminal Justice and the Study of Morality


“Criminal Justice and the Study of Morality” Please respond to the following:

  • Read the article titled “Ethics and Criminal Justice: Some Observations on Police Misconduct”, located at Next, explain the degree to which ethics is or is not an important topic as it relates to criminal justice. Provide at least one (1) example from the news to support your position.
  • Based on the article, indicate the two (2) most significant empirical or quantitative studies that have been conducted to examine ethics in criminal justice. Then, describe the major implications of each study on the criminal justice field.



Ethics is very important in the criminal justice system because the criminal justice workers are supposed to be law abiding and fighting for the side of good. They take the role of protectors of the people and so they must be ethical and honest in the upkeep of the legal system and protecting the common man from criminals. But this has not been seen in the working of the criminal justice system .many police officers succumb to heavy bribes and fall out to protect the drug mafia this in turn enables the drug peddlers to move freely selling the contraband. This is   a very unethical behavior as law protectors have been abetting criminals and lawbreakers.

In order to examine empirical studies in the ethical conduct it is seen that in the study conducted by Klockars et al. the respondents were given 11 vignettes describing various types of possible police misconduct. The response to each vignette differed from agency to agency regarding the environmental integrity.

The second quantitative study entitled Police Attitudes toward Abuse of Authority: Findings from a National Study it was found that generally police officers very tough while regarding abuse and instances of mal practice were rather   few. Taking a stand on what constituted ethical conduct depended upon the supervision.

The impact of these two empirical finding were the basis of state agencies defining their code   of ethics



the early and modern adult perceptions of children and adolescents.


From the e-Activity, describe the early and modern adult perceptions of children and adolescents. Discuss the inextricable manner in which these views have been codified in the American legal system.

According to the text, delinquency is an inherently difficult concept to measure. Discuss the main challenges with measuring self-reports from delinquents. Include one (1) example of such susceptibility of self-reports from delinquents to support your response.


 Answer:The American legal system always viewed the children and adolescents are being above every kind of crime and hence whenever some crime was committed the children   were viewed as being juveniles and were sent to correction homes instead of being tried for the crime and convicting them .

The American legal system has a special court in place for juveniles and they are referred to as juvenile delinquents. This is so said because the juvenile very many times does not know the difference between a crime and something that is done impulsively .the child has to be taught to differentiate and this leads to many a time the juveniles being sent to correction homes instead of the prison.

Delinquency is very difficult to measure because it is qualitative. The main challenges that arise from measuring the self reporting technique is that this cannot be in any way measures door quantified or verified. If a juvenile has confessed to thieving and robbing, the instance of robbing may have been reported but the instance of why the child robbed and why he reported such a crime cannot be measured .The reliability and validity of such self reporting crimes are generally invalid and cannot stand the test of truth .



Vaz, E.W. 1966. Self reported juvenile delinquency and social status. Canadian Journal of Corrections 8:20–27.